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Chinese Xia Dynasty

Xia dynasty is the first pre historic dynasty in the hierarchy of Chinese dynasty. The period marks an evolutionary stage between the late Neolithic cultures and the Civilization of Sang dynasty. Chinese civilization was ruled by Xia dynasty from twenty first to sixteen-century BC. Xia people were inhabitants of the western area of Henan province and southern Shanxi province.

It is found that Xia dynasty does not have any written records and is considered as a part of the Chinese myth that highlights its history. Agriculture was the main sources of livelihood for the Xia people. The Xia

Society was based on slavery. They believed in supernatural powers and rulers often acted as priests and communicated with spirits for help and guidance.

The Xia dynasty chose their ruler based on their ability and power. Yu, the great was the founder and ruler of Xia dynasty in Chinese civilization. After Yu's death, his son took over the throne and lead to a system of ruler based on hereditary. Political system of the period follows a patriarchal clan system. The dynasty was ruled by fifteen offspring of Qu, the son of Xia. Shaokang and Huai made many remarkable contributions that lead to the development of Chinese society.

The existence of Erlitou culture was an essential element of Xia dynasty. Erlitou culture is simply a culture that is characterized by bronze, pottery and other archeological artifacts. Elaborate palaces and tombs constructed in Erlitou culture contributed a deep insight to the lifestyle and wealth of Xia period.

Xia dynasty has made a notable contribution in the field of science and technology in Chinese civilization. Earliest form of Chinese lunar calendar based on the lunar and solar movements were developed in this era. Craftworks like pottery and bronze with simple carving lines and without any patterns were developed. Designs of craftworks were primitive and bore a close resemblance to each other.

Agriculture and its techniques flourished. Tools made of stone were the main tools and primitive vehicles like rickshaws and carriages were use by people of that period. Xia people give a lot of importance to Horse breeding, crop production, livestock and it results in a tremendous progress. A social development of Xia dynasty is the exchange of commodities.

The establishment of Xia dynasty is an important landmark in the history of Chinese civilization. It marks an end to the primitive society and a new beginning of a developed society. It made a huge contribution to politics, arts, science, economy, technology and politics in its history. The Xia dynasty lasted nearly 500 years including its reign of seventeenth emperors. It ended with Jui, a tyrannical emperor and this finally leads to raise the Shang dynasty in its civilization.

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